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The Heidelberg Catechism

The Heidelberg Catechism

The Heidelberg Catechism was composed in Heidelberg at the request of Elector
Frederick III, who ruled the Palatinate, an influential German province, from
1559 to 1576. An old tradition credits Zacharius Ursinus and Caspar Olevianus
with being coauthors of the new catechism. Both were certainly involved in its
composition, although one of them may have had primary responsibility. All we
know for sure is reported by the Elector in his preface of January 19, 1563. It
was, he writes, "with the advice and cooperation of our entire theological
faculty in this place, and of all superintendents and distinguished servants of
the church" that he secured the preparation of the Heidelberg Catechism. The
catechism was approved by a synod in Heidelberg in January 1563. A second and
third German edition, each with small additions, as well as a Latin translation
were published the same year in Heidelberg. Soon the catechism was divided into
fifty-two sections so that one Lord's Day could be explained in preaching each
Sunday of the year.

The Synod of Dort in 1618-1619 approved the Heidelberg Catechism, and it soon
became the most ecumenical of the Reformed catechisms and confessions. The
catechism has been translated into many European, Asian, and African languages
and is the most widely used and most warmly praised catechism of the Reformation

The 1968 Synod of the Christian Reformed Church appointed a committee to prepare
"a modern and accurate translation ... which will serve as the official text of
the Heidelberg Catechism and as a guide for catechism preaching." A translation
was adopted by the Synod of 1975, and some editorial revisions were approved by
the Synod of 1988.

The English translation follows the first German edition of the catechism except
in two instances explained in footnotes to questions 57 and 80. The result of
those inclusions is that the translation therefore actually follows the German
text of the third edition as it was included in the Palatinate Church Order of
November 15, 1563. This is the "received text" used throughout the world.

Biblical passages quoted in the catechism are taken from the New International
Version. In the German editions, biblical quotations sometimes include additional
words not found in the Greek text and therefore not included in recent
translations such as the NIV. The additions from the German are indicated in
footnotes in Q & A 4, 71, and 119.


1   Q.  What is your only comfort
        in life and in death?

    A.  That I am not my own,^1
        but belong--
          body and soul,
          in life and in death--^2
        to my faithful Savior Jesus Christ.^3

          He has fully paid for all my sins with his precious blood,^4
          and has set me free from the tyranny of the devil.^5
          He also watches over me in such a way^6
          that not a hair can fall from my head
          without the will of my Father in heaven:^7
          in fact, all things must work together for my salvation.^8

        Because I belong to him,
        Christ, by his Holy Spirit,
        assures me of eternal life^9
        and makes me wholeheartedly willing and ready
        from now on to live for him.^10

    ^1  1 Cor. 6:19-20
    ^2  Rom. 14:7-9
    ^3  1 Cor. 3:23; Titus 2:14
    ^4  1 Pet. 1:18-19; 1 John 1:7-9; 2:2
    ^5  John 8:34-36; Heb. 2:14-15; 1 John 3:1-11
    ^6  John 6:39-40; 10:27-30; 2 Thess. 3:3; 1 Pet. 1:5
    ^7  Matt. 10:29-31; Luke 21:16-18
    ^8  Rom. 8:28
    ^9  Rom. 8:15-16; 2 Cor. 1:21-22; 5:5; Eph. 1:13-14
    ^10   Rom. 8:1-17

2   Q.  What must you know
        to live and die in the joy of this comfort?

    A.  Three things:
          first, how great my sin and misery are;^1
          second, how I am set free from all my sins and misery;^2
          third, how I am to thank God for such deliverance.^3

    ^1  Rom. 3:9-10; 1 John 1:10
    ^2  John 17:3; Acts 4:12; 10:43
    ^3  Matt. 5:16; Rom. 6:13; Eph. 5:8-10; 2 Tim. 2:15; 1 Pet. 2:9-10

Part I: Human Misery


3   Q.  How do you come to know your misery?

    A.  The law of God tells me.^1

    ^1  Rom. 3:20; 7:7-25

4   Q.  What does God's law require of us?

    A.  Christ teaches us this in summary in Matthew 22--

          Love the Lord your God
          with all your heart
          and with all your soul
          and with all your mind
          and with all your strength.^1^*
          This is the first and greatest commandment.

          And the second is like it:
          Love your neighbor as yourself.^2

          All the Law and the Prophets hang
          on these two commandments.

    ^1  Deut. 6:5
    ^2  Lev. 19:18
    *Earlier and better manuscripts of Matthew 22 omit the words "and with all
your strength." They are found in Mark 12:30.

5   Q.  Can you live up to all this perfectly?

    A.  No.^1
        I have a natural tendency
        to hate God and my neighbor.^2

    ^1  Rom. 3:9-20, 23; 1 John 1:8, 10
    ^2  Gen. 6:5; Jer. 17:9; Rom. 7:23-24; 8:7; Eph. 2:1-3; Titus 3:3


6   Q.  Did God create people
        so wicked and perverse?

    A.  No.
        God created them good^1 and in his own image,^2
          that is, in true righteousness and holiness,^3
        so that they might
          truly know God their creator,^4
          love him with all their heart,
          and live with him in eternal happiness
        for his praise and glory.^5

    ^1  Gen. 1:31
    ^2  Gen. 1:26-27
    ^3  Eph. 4:24
    ^4  Col. 3:10
    ^5  Ps. 8

7   Q.  Then where does this corrupt human nature
        come from?

    A.  From the fall and disobedience of our first parents,
          Adam and Eve, in Paradise.^1
        This fall has so poisoned our nature^2
          that we are born sinners--
          corrupt from conception on.^3

    ^1  Gen. 3
    ^2  Rom. 5:12, 18-19
    ^3  Ps. 51:5

8   Q.  But are we so corrupt
        that we are totally unable to do any good
        and inclined toward all evil?

    A.  Yes,^1 unless we are born again,
        by the Spirit of God.^2

    ^1  Gen. 6:5; 8:21; Job 14:4; Isa. 53:6
    ^2  John 3:3-5


9   Q.  But doesn't God do us an injustice
        by requiring in his law
        what we are unable to do?

    A.  No, God created humans with the ability to keep the law.^1
        They, however, tempted by the devil,^2
          in reckless disobedience,^3
          robbed themselves and all their descendants of these gifts.^4

    ^1  Gen. 1:31; Eph. 4:24
    ^2  Gen. 3:13; John 8:44
    ^3  Gen. 3:6
    ^4  Rom. 5:12, 18, 19

10  Q.  Will God permit
        such disobedience and rebellion
        to go unpunished?

    A.  Certainly not.
        He is terribly angry
          about the sin we are born with
          as well as the sins we personally commit.

        As a just judge
        he punishes them now and in eternity.^1

        He has declared:
          "Cursed is everyone who does not continue to do
          everything written in the Book of the Law.\9^2

    ^1  Ex. 34:7; Ps. 5:4-6; Nah. 1:2; Rom. 1:18; Eph. 5:6; Heb. 9:27
    ^2  Gal. 3:10; Deut. 27:26

11  Q.  But isn't God also merciful?

    A.  God is certainly merciful,^1
        but he is also just.^2
        His justice demands
          that sin, committed against his supreme majesty,
          be punished with the supreme penalty--
          eternal punishment of body and soul.^3

    ^1  Ex. 34:6-7; Ps. 103:8-9
    ^2  Ex. 34:7; Deut. 7:9-11; Ps. 5:4-6; Heb. 10:30-31
    ^3  Matt. 25:35-46

Part II: Deliverance


12  Q.  According to God's righteous judgment
        we deserve punishment
        both in this world and forever after:
        how then can we escape this punishment
        and return to God's favor?

    A.  God requires that his justice be satisfied.^1
        Therefore the claims of his justice
        must be paid in full,
        either by ourselves or another.^2

    ^1  Ex. 23:7; Rom. 2:1-11
    ^2  Isa. 53:11; Rom. 8:3-4

13  Q.  Can we pay this debt ourselves?

    A.  Certainly not.
        Actually, we increase our guilt every day.^1

    ^1  Matt. 6:12; Rom. 2:4-5

14  Q.  Can another creature--any at all--
        pay this debt for us?

    A.  No.
        To begin with,
          God will not punish another creature
          for what a human is guilty of.^1
          no mere creature can bear the weight
          of God's eternal anger against sin
          and release others from it.^2

    ^1  Ezek. 18:4, 20; Heb. 2:14-18
    ^2  Ps. 49:7-9; 130:3

15  Q.  What kind of mediator and deliverer
        should we look for then?

    A.  One who is truly human^1 and truly righteous,^2
          yet more powerful than all creatures,
          that is, one who is also true God.^3

    ^1  Rom. 1:3; 1 Cor. 15:21; Heb. 2:17
    ^2  Isa. 53:9; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 7:26
    ^3  Isa. 7:14; 9:6; Jer. 23:6; John 1:1


16  Q.  Why must he be truly human
        and truly righteous?

    A.  God's justice demands
          that human nature, which has sinned,
          must pay for its sin;^1
          but a sinner could never pay for others.^2

    ^1  Rom. 5:12, 15; 1 Cor. 15:21; Heb. 2:14-16
    ^2  Heb. 7:26-27; 1 Pet. 3:18

17  Q.  Why must he also be true God?

    A.  So that,
          by the power of his divinity,
        he might bear the weight of God's anger in his humanity
          and earn for us
          and restore to us
        righteousness and life.^1

    ^1  Isa. 53; John 3:16; 2 Cor. 5:21

18  Q.  And who is this mediator--
        true God and at the same time
        truly human and truly righteous?

    A.  Our Lord Jesus Christ,^1
          who was given us
          to set us completely free
          and to make us right with God.^2

    ^1  Matt. 1:21-23; Luke 2:11; 1 Tim. 2:5
    ^2  1 Cor. 1:30

19  Q.  How do you come to know this?

    A.  The holy gospel tells me.
          God himself began to reveal the gospel already in Paradise;^1
          later, he proclaimed it
            by the holy patriarchs^2 and prophets,^3
          and portrayed it
            by the sacrifices and other ceremonies of the law;^4
          finally, he fulfilled it
            through his own dear Son.^5

    ^1  Gen. 3:15
    ^2  Gen. 22:18; 49:10
    ^3  Isa. 53; Jer. 23:5-6; Mic. 7:18-20; Acts 10:43; Heb. 1:1-2
    ^4  Lev. 1-7; John 5:46; Heb. 10:1-10
    ^5  Rom. 10:4; Gal. 4:4-5; Col. 2:17


20  Q.  Are all saved through Christ
        just as all were lost through Adam?

    A.  No.
        Only those are saved
        who by true faith
          are grafted into Christ
          and accept all his blessings.^1

    ^1  Matt. 7:14; John 3:16, 18, 36; Rom. 11:16-21

21  Q.  What is true faith?

    A.  True faith is
          not only a knowledge and conviction
            that everything God reveals in his Word is true;^1
        it is also a deep-rooted assurance,^2
          created in me by the Holy Spirit^3 through the gospel,^4
          that, out of sheer grace earned for us by Christ,^5
            not only others, but I too,^6
              have had my sins forgiven,
              have been made forever right with God,
              and have been granted salvation.^7

    ^1  John 17:3, 17; Heb. 11:1-3; James 2:19
    ^2  Rom. 4:18-21; 5:1; 10:10; Heb. 4:14-16
    ^3  Matt. 16:15-17; John 3:5; Acts 16:14
    ^4  Rom. 1:16; 10:17; 1 Cor. 1:21
    ^5  Rom. 3:21-26; Gal. 2:16; Eph. 2:8-10
    ^6  Gal. 2:20
    ^7  Rom. 1:17; Heb. 10:10

22  Q.  What then must a Christian believe?

    A.  Everything God promises us in the gospel.^1
          That gospel is summarized for us
          in the articles of our Christian faith--
          a creed beyond doubt,
          and confessed throughout the world.
    ^1  Matt. 28:18-20; John 20:30-31

23  Q.  What are these articles?

    A.  I believe in God, the Father almighty,
          creator of heaven and earth.

        I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord,
          who was conceived by the Holy Spirit
          and born of the virgin Mary.
          He suffered under Pontius Pilate,
          was crucified, died, and was buried;
          he descended to hell.
          The third day he rose again from the dead.
          He ascended to heaven
          and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty.
          From there he will come to judge the living and the dead.

        I believe in the Holy Spirit,
          the holy catholic church,
          the communion of saints,
          the forgiveness of sins,
          the resurrection of the body,
          and the life everlasting. Amen.


24  Q.  How are these articles divided?

    A.  Into three parts:
          God the Father and our creation;
          God the Son and our deliverance;
          God the Holy Spirit and our sanctification.

25  Q.  Since there is but one God,^1
        why do you speak of three:
        Father, Son, and Holy Spirit?

    A.  Because that is how
          God has revealed himself in his Word:^2
          these three distinct persons
          are one, true, eternal God.

    ^1  Deut. 6:4; 1 Cor. 8:4, 6
    ^2  Matt. 3:16-17; 28:18-19; Luke 4:18 (Isa. 61:1); John 14:26; 15:26; 2 Cor.
        Gal. 4:6; Tit. 3:5-6

God the Father


26  Q.  What do you believe when you say,
        "I believe in God, the Father almighty,
        creator of heaven and earth"?

    A.  That the eternal Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,
          who out of nothing created heaven and earth
            and everything in them,^1
          who still upholds and rules them
            by his eternal counsel and providence,^2
        is my God and Father
          because of Christ his Son.^3

        I trust him so much that I do not doubt
          he will provide
            whatever I need
            for body and soul,^4
          and he will turn to my good
            whatever adversity he sends me
            in this sad world.^5

        He is able to do this because he is almighty God;^6
        he desires to do this because he is a faithful Father.^7

    ^1  Gen. 1 & 2; Ex. 20:11; Ps. 33:6; Isa. 44:24; Acts 4:24; 14:15
    ^2  Ps. 104; Matt. 6:30; 10:29; Eph. 1:11
    ^3  John 1:12-13; Rom. 8:15-16; Gal. 4:4-7; Eph. 1:5
    ^4  Ps. 55:22; Matt. 6:25-26; Luke 12:22-31
    ^5  Rom. 8:28
    ^6  Gen. 18:14; Rom. 8:31-39
    ^7  Matt. 7:9-11


27  Q.  What do you understand
        by the providence of God?

    A.  Providence is
          the almighty and ever present power of God^1
          by which he upholds, as with his hand,
            and earth
            and all creatures,^2
          and so rules them that
            leaf and blade,
            rain and drought,
            fruitful and lean years,
            food and drink,
            health and sickness,
            prosperity and poverty--^3
            all things, in fact, come to us
              not by chance^4
              but from his fatherly hand.^5

    ^1  Jer. 23:23-24; Acts 17:24-28
    ^2  Heb. 1:3
    ^3  Jer. 5:24; Acts 14:15-17; John 9:3; Prov. 22:2
    ^4  Prov. 16:33
    ^5  Matt. 10:29

28  Q.  How does the knowledge
        of God's creation and providence
        help us?

    A.  We can be patient when things go against us,^1
          thankful when things go well,^2
          and for the future we can have
          good confidence in our faithful God and Father
          that nothing will separate us from his love.^3
          All creatures are so completely in his hand
            that without his will
            they can neither move nor be moved.^4

    ^1  Job 1:21-22; James 1:3
    ^2  Deut. 8:10; 1 Thess. 5:18
    ^3  Ps. 55:22; Rom. 5:3-5; 8:38-39
    ^4  Job 1:12; 2:6; Prov. 21:1; Acts 17:24-28

God the Son


29  Q.  Why is the Son of God called "Jesus,"
        meaning "savior"?

    A.  Because he saves us from our sins.^1
          Salvation cannot be found in anyone else;
          it is futile to look for any salvation elsewhere.^2

    ^1  Matt. 1:21; Heb. 7:25
    ^2  Isa. 43:11; John 15:5; Acts 4:11-12; 1 Tim. 2:5

30  Q.  Do those who look for
        their salvation and security
        in saints, in themselves, or elsewhere
        really believe in the only savior Jesus?

    A.  No.
        Although they boast of being his,
        by their deeds they deny
        the only savior and deliverer, Jesus.^1

        Either Jesus is not a perfect savior,
        or those who in true faith accept this savior
        have in him all they need for their salvation.^2

    ^1  1 Cor. 1:12-13; Gal. 5:4
    ^2  Col. 1:19-20; 2:10; 1 John 1:7


31  Q.  Why is he called "Christ,"
        meaning "anointed"?

    A.  Because he has been ordained by God the Father
        and has been anointed with the Holy Spirit^1
          to be
          our chief prophet and teacher^2
            who perfectly reveals to us
            the secret counsel and will of God for our deliverance;^3
          our only high priest^4
            who has set us free by the one sacrifice of his body,^5
            and who continually pleads our cause with the Father;^6
          and our eternal king^7
            who governs us by his Word and Spirit,
            and who guards us and keeps us
            in the freedom he has won for us.^8

    ^1  Luke 3:21-22; 4:14-19 (Isa. 61:1); Heb. 1:9 (Ps. 45:7)
    ^2  Acts 3:22 (Deut. 18:15)
    ^3  John 1:18; 15:15
    ^4  Heb. 7:17 (Ps. 110:4)
    ^5  Heb. 9:12; 10:11-14
    ^6  Rom. 8:34; Heb. 9:24
    ^7  Matt. 21:5 (Zech. 9:9)
    ^8  Matt. 28:18-20; John 10:28; Rev. 12:10-11

32  Q.  But why are you called a Christian?

    A.  Because by faith I am a member of Christ^1
        and so I share in his anointing.^2
          I am anointed
          to confess his name,^3
          to present myself to him as a living sacrifice of thanks,^4
          to strive with a good conscience against sin and the devil
            in this life,^5
          and afterward to reign with Christ
            over all creation
            for all eternity.^6

    ^1  1 Cor. 12:12-27
    ^2  Acts 2:17 (Joel 2:28); 1 John 2:27
    ^3  Matt. 10:32; Rom. 10:9-10; Heb. 13:15
    ^4  Rom. 12:1; 1 Pet. 2:5, 9
    ^5  Gal. 5:16-17; Eph. 6:11; 1 Tim. 1:18-19
    ^6  Matt. 25:34; 2 Tim. 2:12


33  Q.  Why is he called God's "only Son"
        when we also are God's children?

    A.  Because Christ alone is the eternal, natural Son of God.^1
        We, however, are adopted children of God--
          adopted by grace through Christ.^2

    ^1  John 1:1-3, 14, 18; Heb. 1
    ^2  John 1:12; Rom. 8:14-17; Eph. 1:5-6

34  Q.  Why do you call him "our Lord"?

    A.  Because--
          not with gold or silver,
          but with his precious blood--^1
        he has set us free
          from sin and from the tyranny of the devil,^2
        and has bought us,
          body and soul,
        to be his very own.^3

    ^1  1 Pet. 1:18-19
    ^2  Col. 1:13-14; Heb. 2:14-15
    ^3  1 Cor. 6:20; 1 Tim. 2:5-6


35  Q.  What does it mean that he
        "was conceived by the Holy Spirit
        and born of the virgin Mary"?

    A.  That the eternal Son of God,
          who is and remains
          true and eternal God,^1
        took to himself,
          through the working of the Holy Spirit,^2
          from the flesh and blood of the virgin Mary,^3
        a truly human nature
          so that he might become David's true descendant,^4
          like his brothers in every way^5
            except for sin.^6

    ^1  John 1:1; 10:30-36; Acts 13:33 (Ps. 2:7); Col. 1:15-17; 1 John 5:20
    ^2  Luke 1:35
    ^3  Matt. 1:18-23; John 1:14; Gal. 4:4; Heb. 2:14
    ^4  2 Sam. 7:12-16; Ps. 132:11; Matt. 1:1; Rom. 1:3
    ^5  Phil. 2:7; Heb. 2:17
    ^6  Heb. 4:15; 7:26-27

36  Q.  How does the holy conception and birth of Christ
        benefit you?

    A.  He is our mediator,^1
        and with his innocence and perfect holiness
        he removes from God's sight
        my sin--mine since I was conceived.^2

    ^1  1 Tim. 2:5-6; Heb. 9:13-15
    ^2  Rom. 8:3-4; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 4:4-5; 1 Pet. 1:18-19


37  Q.  What do you understand
        by the word "suffered"?

    A.  That during his whole life on earth,
        but especially at the end,
        Christ sustained
          in body and soul
          the anger of God against the sin of the whole human race.^1

        This he did in order that,
          by his suffering as the only atoning sacrifice,^2
          he might set us free, body and soul,
            from eternal condemnation,^3
          and gain for us
            God's grace,
            and eternal life.^4

    ^1  Isa. 53; 1 Pet. 2:24; 3:18
    ^2  Rom. 3:25; Heb. 10:14; 1 John 2:2; 4:10
    ^3  Rom. 8:1-4; Gal. 3:13
    ^4  John 3:16; Rom. 3:24-26

38  Q.  Why did he suffer
        "under Pontius Pilate" as judge?

    A.  So that he,
          though innocent,
        might be condemned by a civil judge,^1
        and so free us from the severe judgment of God
          that was to fall on us.^2

    ^1  Luke 23:13-24; John 19:4, 12-16
    ^2  Isa. 53:4-5; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:13

39  Q.  Is it significant
        that he was "crucified"
        instead of dying some other way?

    A.  Yes.
        This death convinces me
        that he shouldered the curse
        which lay on me,
        since death by crucifixion was accursed by God.^1

    ^1  Gal. 3:10-13 (Deut. 21:23)


40  Q.  Why did Christ have to go all the way to death?

    A.  Because God's justice and truth demand it:^1
        only the death of God's Son could pay for our sin.^2

    ^1  Gen. 2:17
    ^2  Rom. 8:3-4; Phil. 2:8; Heb. 2:9

41  Q.  Why was he "buried"?

    A.  His burial testifies
        that he really died.^1

    ^1  Isa. 53:9; John 19:38-42; Acts 13:29; 1 Cor. 15:3-4

42  Q.  Since Christ has died for us,
        why do we still have to die?

    A.  Our death does not pay the debt of our sins.^1
        Rather, it puts an end to our sinning
        and is our entrance into eternal life.^2

    ^1  Ps. 49:7
    ^2  John 5:24; Phil. 1:21-23; 1 Thess. 5:9-10

43  Q.  What further advantage do we receive
        from Christ's sacrifice and death on the cross?
    A.  Through Christ's death
        our old selves are crucified, put to death, and buried with him,^1
        so that the evil desires of the flesh
          may no longer rule us,^2
        but that instead we may dedicate ourselves
          as an offering of gratitude to him.^3

    ^1  Rom. 6:5-11; Col. 2:11-12
    ^2  Rom. 6:12-14
    ^3  Rom. 12:1; Eph. 5:1-2

44  Q.  Why does the creed add,
        "He descended to hell"?

    A.  To assure me in times of personal crisis and temptation
        that Christ my Lord,
          by suffering unspeakable anguish, pain, and terror of soul,
            especially on the cross but also earlier,
        has delivered me from the anguish and torment of hell.^1

    ^1  Isa. 53; Matt. 26:36-46; 27:45-46; Luke 22:44; Heb. 5:7-10


45  Q.  How does Christ's resurrection
        benefit us?

    A.  First, by his resurrection he has overcome death,
          so that he might make us share in the righteousness
          he won for us by his death.^1

        Second, by his power we too
          are already now resurrected to a new life.^2

        Third, Christ's resurrection
          is a guarantee of our glorious resurrection.^3

    ^1  Rom. 4:25; 1 Cor. 15:16-20; 1 Pet. 1:3-5
    ^2  Rom. 6:5-11; Eph. 2:4-6; Col. 3:1-4
    ^3  Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 15:12-23; Phil. 3:20-21


46  Q.  What do you mean by saying,
        "He ascended to heaven"?

    A.  That Christ,
          while his disciples watched,
        was lifted up from the earth to heaven^1
        and will be there for our good^2
        until he comes again
          to judge the living and the dead.^3

    ^1  Luke 24:50-51; Acts 1:9-11
    ^2  Rom. 8:34; Eph. 4:8-10; Heb. 7:23-25; 9:24
    ^3  Acts 1:11

47  Q.  But isn't Christ with us
        until the end of the world
        as he promised us?^1

    A.  Christ is truly human and truly God.
          In his human nature Christ is not now on earth;^2
          but in his divinity, majesty, grace, and Spirit
          he is not absent from us for a moment.^3

    ^1  Matt. 28:20
    ^2  Acts 1:9-11; 3:19-21
    ^3  Matt. 28:18-20; John 14:16-19

48  Q.  If his humanity is not present
        wherever his divinity is,
        then aren't the two natures of Christ
        separated from each other?

    A.  Certainly not.
        Since divinity
          is not limited
          and is present everywhere,^1
        it is evident that
          Christ's divinity is surely beyond the bounds of
            the humanity he has taken on,
          but at the same time his divinity is in
          and remains personally united to
            his humanity.^2

    ^1  Jer. 23:23-24; Acts 7:48-49 (Isa. 66:1)
    ^2  John 1:14; 3:13; Col. 2:9

49  Q.  How does Christ's ascension to heaven
        benefit us?

    A.  First, he pleads our cause
          in heaven
          in the presence of his Father.^1

        Second, we have our own flesh in heaven--
          a guarantee that Christ our head
          will take us, his members,
          to himself in heaven.^2

        Third, he sends his Spirit to us on earth
          as a further guarantee.^3
          By the Spirit's power
            we make the goal of our lives,
              not earthly things,
            but the things above where Christ is,
              sitting at God's right hand.^4

    ^1  Rom. 8:34; 1 John 2:1
    ^2  John 14:2; 17:24; Eph. 2:4-6
    ^3  John 14:16; 2 Cor. 1:21-22; 5:5
    ^4  Col. 3:1-4


50  Q.  Why the next words:
        "and is seated at the right hand of God"?

    A.  Christ ascended to heaven,
        there to show that he is head of his church,^1
          and that the Father rules all things through him.^2

    ^1  Eph. 1:20-23; Col. 1:18
    ^2  Matt. 28:18; John 5:22-23

51  Q.  How does this glory of Christ our head
        benefit us?

    A.  First, through his Holy Spirit
          he pours out his gifts from heaven
            upon us his members.^1

        Second, by his power
          he defends us and keeps us safe
            from all enemies.^2

    ^1  Acts 2:33; Eph. 4:7-12
    ^2  Ps. 110:1-2; John 10:27-30; Rev. 19:11-16

52  Q.  How does Christ's return
        "to judge the living and the dead"
        comfort you?

    A.  In all my distress and persecution
        I turn my eyes to the heavens
        and confidently await as judge the very One
          who has already stood trial in my place before God
          and so has removed the whole curse from me.^1
        All his enemies and mine
          he will condemn to everlasting punishment:
        but me and all his chosen ones
          he will take along with him
          into the joy and the glory of heaven.^2

    ^1  Luke 21:28; Rom. 8:22-25; Phil. 3:20-21; Tit. 2:13-14
    ^2  Matt. 25:31-46; 2 Thess. 1:6-10

God the Holy Spirit


53  Q.  What do you believe
        concerning "the Holy Spirit"?

    A.  First, he, as well as the Father and the Son,
          is eternal God.^1

        Second, he has been given to me personally,^2
          so that, by true faith,
          he makes me share in Christ and all his blessings,^3
          comforts me,^4
          and remains with me forever.^5

    ^1  Gen. 1:1-2; Matt. 28:19; Acts 5:3-4
    ^2  1 Cor. 6:19; 2 Cor. 1:21-22; Gal. 4:6
    ^3  Gal. 3:14
    ^4  John 15:26; Acts 9:31
    ^5  John 14:16-17; 1 Pet. 4:14


54  Q.  What do you believe
        concerning "the holy catholic church"?

    A.  I believe that the Son of God
          through his Spirit and Word,^1
          out of the entire human race,^2
          from the beginning of the world to its end,^3
        gathers, protects, and preserves for himself
          a community chosen for eternal life^4
            and united in true faith.^5
        And of this community I am^6 and always will be^7
          a living member.

    ^1  John 10:14-16; Acts 20:28; Rom. 10:14-17; Col. 1:18
    ^2  Gen. 26:3b-4; Rev. 5:9
    ^3  Isa. 59:21; 1 Cor. 11:26
    ^4  Matt. 16:18; John 10:28-30; Rom. 8:28-30; Eph. 1:3-14
    ^5  Acts 2:42-47; Eph. 4:1-6
    ^6  1 John 3:14, 19-21
    ^7  John 10:27-28; 1 Cor. 1:4-9; 1 Pet. 1:3-5

55  Q.  What do you understand by
        "the communion of saints"?

    A.  First, that believers one and all,
        as members of this community,
        share in Christ
        and in all his treasures and gifts.^1

        Second, that each member
        should consider it a duty
        to use these gifts
          readily and cheerfully
          for the service and enrichment
            of the other members.^2

    ^1  Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 6:17; 12:4-7, 12-13; 1 John 1:3
    ^2  Rom. 12:4-8; 1 Cor. 12:20-27; 13:1-7; Phil. 2:4-8

56  Q.  What do you believe
        concerning "the forgiveness of sins"?

    A.  I believe that God,
          because of Christ's atonement,
        will never hold against me
          any of my sins^1
          nor my sinful nature
            which I need to struggle against all my life.^2

        Rather, in his grace
          God grants me the righteousness of Christ
          to free me forever from judgment.^3

    ^1  Ps. 103:3-4, 10, 12; Mic. 7:18-19; 2 Cor. 5:18-21; 1 John 1:7; 2:2
    ^2  Rom. 7:21-25
    ^3  John 3:17-18; Rom. 8:1-2


57  Q.  How does "the resurrection of the body"
        comfort you?

    A.  Not only my soul
          will be taken immediately after this life
          to Christ its head,^1
        but even my very flesh, raised by the power of Christ,
          will be reunited with my soul
          and made like Christ's glorious* body.^2

    ^1  Luke 23:43; Phil. 1:21-23
    ^2  1 Cor. 15:20, 42-46, 54; Phil. 3:21; 1 John 3:2

58  Q.  How does the article
        concerning "life everlasting"
        comfort you?

    A.  Even as I already now
          experience in my heart
          the beginning of eternal joy,^1
        so after this life I will have
          perfect blessedness such as
            no eye has seen,
            no ear has heard,
            no human heart has ever imagined:
        a blessedness in which to praise God eternally.^2

    ^1  Rom. 14:17
    ^2  John 17:3; 1 Cor. 2:9
         *The first edition had here the German word for "holy." This was later
corrected to the German word for "glorious."


59  Q.  What good does it do you, however,
        to believe all this?

    A.  In Christ I am right with God
        and heir to life everlasting.^1

    ^1  John 3:36; Rom. 1:17 (Hab. 2:4); Rom. 5:1-2

60  Q.  How are you right with God?

    A.  Only by true faith in Jesus Christ.^1

        Even though my conscience accuses me
          of having grievously sinned against all God's commandments
          and of never having kept any of them,^2
        and even though I am still inclined toward all evil,^3
          without my deserving it at all,^4
          out of sheer grace,^5
        God grants and credits to me
        the perfect satisfaction, righteousness, and holiness of Christ,^6
          as if I had never sinned nor been a sinner,
          as if I had been as perfectly obedient
            as Christ was obedient for me.^7

        All I need to do
        is to accept this gift of God with a believing heart.^8

    ^1  Rom. 3:21-28; Gal. 2:16; Eph. 2:8-9; Phil 3:8-11
    ^2  Rom. 3:9-10
    ^3  Rom. 7:23
    ^4  Tit. 3:4-5
    ^5  Rom. 3:24; Eph. 2:8
    ^6  Rom. 4:3-5 (Gen. 15:6); 2 Cor. 5:17-19; 1 John 2:1-2
    ^7  Rom. 4:24-25; 2 Cor. 5:21
    ^8  John 3:18; Acts 16:30-31

61  Q.  Why do you say that
        by faith alone
        you are right with God?

    A.  It is not because of any value my faith has
          that God is pleased with me.
        Only Christ's satisfaction, righteousness, and holiness
          make me right with God.^1
        And I can receive this righteousness and make it mine
          in no other way than
          by faith alone.^2

    ^1  1 Cor. 1:30-31
    ^2  Rom. 10:10; 1 John 5:10-12


62  Q.  Why can't the good we do
        make us right with God,
        or at least help make us right with him?

    A.  Because the righteousness
        which can pass God's scrutiny
          must be entirely perfect
          and must in every way measure up to the divine law.^1
        Even the very best we do in this life
          is imperfect
          and stained with sin.^2

    ^1  Rom. 3:20; Gal. 3:10 (Deut. 27:26)
    ^2  Isa. 64:6

63  Q.  How can you say that the good we do
        doesn't earn anything
        when God promises to reward it
        in this life and the next?^1

    A.  This reward is not earned;
        it is a gift of grace.^2

    ^1  Matt. 5:12; Heb. 11:6
    ^2  Luke 17:10; 2 Tim. 4:7-8

64  Q.  But doesn't this teaching
        make people indifferent and wicked?
    A.  No.
        It is impossible
          for those grafted into Christ by true faith
        not to produce fruits of gratitude.^1

    ^1  Luke 6:43-45; John 15:5

The Sacraments


65  Q.  It is by faith alone
        that we share in Christ and all his blessings:
        where then does that faith come from?

    A.  The Holy Spirit produces it in our hearts^1
          by the preaching of the holy gospel,^2
        and confirms it
          through our use of the holy sacraments.^3

    ^1  John 3:5; 1 Cor. 2:10-14; Eph. 2:8
    ^2  Rom. 10:17; 1 Pet. 1:23-25
    ^3  Matt. 28:19-20; 1 Cor. 10:16

66  Q.  What are sacraments?

    A.  Sacraments are holy signs and seals for us to see.
        They were instituted by God so that
          by our use of them
        he might make us understand more clearly
           the promise of the gospel,
        and might put his seal on that promise.^1

        And this is God's gospel promise:
          to forgive our sins and give us eternal life
            by grace alone
            because of Christ's one sacrifice
            finished on the cross.^2

    ^1  Gen. 17:11; Deut. 30:6; Rom. 4:11
    ^2  Matt. 26:27-28; Acts 2:38; Heb. 10:10

67  Q.  Are both the word and the sacraments then
        intended to focus our faith
        on the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross
        as the only ground of our salvation?

    A.  Right!

        In the gospel the Holy Spirit teaches us
        and through the holy sacraments he assures us
          that our entire salvation
          rests on Christ's one sacrifice for us on the cross.^1

    ^1  Rom. 6:3; 1 Cor. 11:26; Gal. 3:27

68  Q.  How many sacraments
        did Christ institute in the New Testament?

    A.  Two: baptism and the Lord's Supper.^1

    ^1  Matt. 28:19-20; 1 Cor. 11:23-26



69  Q.  How does baptism
        remind you and assure you
        that Christ's one sacrifice on the cross
        is for you personally?

    A.  In this way:
        Christ instituted this outward washing^1
        and with it gave the promise that,
          as surely as water washes away the dirt from the body,
          so certainly his blood and his Spirit
          wash away my soul's impurity,
            in other words, all my sins.^2

    ^1  Acts 2:38
    ^2  Matt. 3:11; Rom. 6:3-10; 1 Pet. 3:21

70  Q.  What does it mean
        to be washed with Christ's blood and Spirit?

    A.  To be washed with Christ's blood means
          that God, by grace, has forgiven my sins
            because of Christ's blood
            poured out for me in his sacrifice on the cross.^1

        To be washed with Christ's Spirit means
          that the Holy Spirit has renewed me
          and set me apart to be a member of Christ
            so that more and more I become dead to sin
            and increasingly live a holy and blameless life.^2

    ^1  Zech. 13:1; Eph. 1:7-8; Heb. 12:24; 1 Pet. 1:2; Rev. 1:5
    ^2  Ezek. 36:25-27; John 3:5-8; Rom. 6:4; 1 Cor. 6:11; Col. 2:11-12

71  Q.  Where does Christ promise
        that we are washed with his blood and Spirit
        as surely as we are washed
        with the water of baptism?

    A.  In the institution of baptism where he says:

          "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations,
          baptizing them in the name of the Father
          and of the Son
          and of the Holy Spirit."^1

          "Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved,
          but whoever does not believe will be condemned."^2*

          This promise is repeated when Scripture calls baptism
            the washing of rebirth^3 and
            the washing away of sins.^4

    ^1  Matt. 28:19
    ^2  Mark 16:16
    ^3  Tit. 3:5
    ^4  Acts 22:16
    *Earlier and better manuscripts of Mark 16 omit the words "Whoever believes
and is baptized . . . condemned."


72  Q.  Does this outward washing with water
        itself wash away sins?

    A.  No, only Jesus Christ's blood and the Holy Spirit
        cleanse us from all sins.^1

    ^1  Matt. 3:11; 1 Pet. 3:21; 1 John 1:7

73  Q.  Why then does the Holy Spirit call baptism
        the washing of rebirth and
        the washing away of sins?

    A.  God has good reason for these words.
        He wants to teach us that
          the blood and Spirit of Christ wash away our sins
          just as water washes away dirt from our bodies.^1

        But more important,
        he wants to assure us, by this divine pledge and sign,
          that the washing away of our sins spiritually
          is as real as physical washing with water.^2

    ^1  1 Cor. 6:11; Rev. 1:5; 7:14
    ^2  Acts 2:38; Rom. 6:3-4; Gal. 3:27

74  Q.  Should infants, too, be baptized?

    A.  Yes.
        Infants as well as adults
          are in God's covenant and are his people.^1
        They, no less than adults, are promised
          the forgiveness of sin through Christ's blood
          and the Holy Spirit who produces faith.^2

        Therefore, by baptism, the mark of the covenant,
          infants should be received into the Christian church
          and should be distinguished from the children
            of unbelievers.^3
        This was done in the Old Testament by circumcision,^4
          which was replaced in the New Testament by baptism.^5

    ^1  Gen. 17:7; Matt. 19:14
    ^2  Isa. 44:1-3; Acts 2:38-39; 16:31
    ^3  Acts 10:47; 1 Cor. 7:14
    ^4  Gen. 17:9-14
    ^5  Col. 2:11-13

The Lord's Supper


75  Q.  How does the Lord's Supper
        remind you and assure you
        that you share in
        Christ's one sacrifice on the cross
        and in all his gifts?

    A.  In this way:
        Christ has commanded me and all believers
        to eat this broken bread and to drink this cup.
        With this command he gave this promise:^1

          as surely as I see with my eyes
            the bread of the Lord broken for me
            and the cup given to me,
          so surely
            his body was offered and broken for me
            and his blood poured out for me
              on the cross.

          as surely as
            I receive from the hand of the one who serves,
            and taste with my mouth
              the bread and cup of the Lord,
              given me as sure signs of Christ's body and blood,
          so surely
            he nourishes and refreshes my soul for eternal life
          with his crucified body and poured-out blood.

    ^1  Matt. 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20; 1 Cor. 11:23-25

76  Q.  What does it mean
        to eat the crucified body of Christ
        and to drink his poured-out blood?

    A.  It means
          to accept with a believing heart
            the entire suffering and death of Christ
          and by believing
            to receive forgiveness of sins and eternal life.^1

        But it means more.
          Through the Holy Spirit, who lives both in Christ and in us,
          we are united more and more to Christ's blessed body.^2
            And so, although he is in heaven^3 and we are on earth,
            we are flesh of his flesh and bone of his bone.^4
            And we forever live on and are governed by one Spirit,
              as members of our body are by one soul.^5

    ^1  John 6:35, 40, 50-54
    ^2  John 6:55-56; 1 Cor. 12:13
    ^3  Acts 1:9-11; 1 Cor. 11:26; Col. 3:1
    ^4  1 Cor. 6:15-17; Eph. 5:29-30; 1 John 4:13
    ^5  John 6:56-58; 15:1-6; Eph. 4:15-16; 1 John 3:24

77  Q.  Where does Christ promise
        to nourish and refresh believers
        with his body and blood
        as surely as
        they eat this broken bread
        and drink this cup?

    A.  In the institution of the Lord's Supper:

          "The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed,
          took bread, and when he had given thanks,
          he broke it and said,
            'This is my body, which is for you;
            do this in remembrance of me.'
          In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying,
            'This cup is the new covenant in my blood;
            do this, whenever you drink it,
            in remembrance of me.'
          For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup,
          you proclaim the Lord's death
          until he comes."^1

        This promise is repeated by Paul in these words:

          "Is not the cup of thanksgiving for which we give thanks
            a participation in the blood of Christ?
          And is not the bread that we break
            a participation in the body of Christ?
          Because there is one loaf, we, who are many, are one body,
          for we all partake of the one loaf."^2

    ^1  1 Cor. 11:23-26
    ^2  1 Cor. 10:16-17


78  Q.  Are the bread and wine changed into
        the real body and blood of Christ?

    A.  No.
        Just as the water of baptism
          is not changed into Christ's blood
          and does not itself wash away sins
          but is simply God's sign and assurance,^1
        so too the bread of the Lord's Supper
          is not changed into the actual body of Christ^2
          even though it is called the body of Christ^3
            in keeping with the nature and language of sacraments.^4

    ^1  Eph. 5:26; Tit. 3:5
    ^2  Matt. 26:26-29
    ^3  1 Cor. 10:16-17; 11:26-28
    ^4  Gen. 17:10-11; Ex. 12:11, 13; 1 Cor. 10:1-4

79  Q.  Why then does Christ call
        the bread his body
        and the cup his blood,
        or the new covenant in his blood?
        (Paul uses the words,
        a participation in Christ's body and blood.)

    A.  Christ has good reason for these words.
        He wants to teach us that
          as bread and wine nourish our temporal life,
          so too his crucified body and poured-out blood
          truly nourish our souls for eternal life.^1

        But more important,
        he wants to assure us, by this visible sign and pledge,
          that we, through the Holy Spirit's work,
            share in his true body and blood
            as surely as our mouths
            receive these holy signs in his remembrance,^2
          and that all of his suffering and obedience
            are as definitely ours
            as if we personally
            had suffered and paid for our sins.^3

    ^1  John 6:51, 55
    ^2  1 Cor. 10:16-17; 11:26
    ^3  Rom. 6:5-11


*80 Q.  How does the Lord's Supper
        differ from the Roman Catholic Mass?

    A.  The Lord's Supper declares to us
          that our sins have been completely forgiven
          through the one sacrifice of Jesus Christ
          which he himself finished on the cross once for all.^1
        It also declares to us
          that the Holy Spirit grafts us into Christ,^2
          who with his very body
          is now in heaven at the right hand of the Father^3
          where he wants us to worship him.^4

        [But the Mass teaches
          that the living and the dead
          do not have their sins forgiven
          through the suffering of Christ
          unless Christ is still offered for them daily by the priests.
        It also teaches
          that Christ is bodily present
          in the form of bread and wine
          where Christ is therefore to be worshiped.
        Thus the Mass is basically
          nothing but a denial
          of the one sacrifice and suffering of Jesus Christ
          and a condemnable idolatry.]**

    ^1  John 19:30; Heb. 7:27; 9:12, 25-26; 10:10-18
    ^2  1 Cor. 6:17; 10:16-17
    ^3  Acts 7:55-56; Heb. 1:3; 8:1
    ^4  Matt. 6:20-21; John 4:21-24; Phil. 3:20; Col. 3:1-3
    *Question and answer 80 were altogether absent from the first edition of the
catechism but were present in a shorter form in the second edition. The
translation here given is of the expanded text of the third edition.

**In response to a mandate from Synod 1998, the Christian Reformed Church’s Interchurch Relations Committee conducted a study of Q&A 80 and the Roman Catholic Mass. Based on this study, Synod 2004 declared that “Q&A 80 can no longer be held in its current form as part of our confession.” Synod 2006 directed that Q&A 80 remain in the CRC’s text of the Heidelberg Catechism but that the last three paragraphs be placed in brackets to indicate that they do not accurately reflect the official teaching and practice of today’s Roman Catholic Church and are no longer confessionally binding on members of the CRC.

81  Q.  Who are to come
        to the Lord's table?

    A.  Those who are displeased with themselves
          because of their sins,
        but who nevertheless trust
          that their sins are pardoned
          and that their continuing weakness is covered
            by the suffering and death of Christ,
        and who also desire more and more
          to strengthen their faith
          and to lead a better life.

        Hypocrites and those who are unrepentant, however,
        eat and drink judgment on themselves.^1

    ^1  1 Cor. 10:19-22; 11:26-32

82  Q.  Are those to be admitted
        to the Lord's Supper
        who show by what they say and do
        that they are unbelieving and ungodly?

    A.  No, that would dishonor God's covenant
        and bring down God's anger upon the entire congregation.^1
        Therefore, according to the instruction of Christ
            and his apostles,
          the Christian church is duty-bound to exclude such people,
            by the official use of the keys of the kingdom,
          until they reform their lives.

    ^1  1 Cor. 11:17-32; Ps. 50:14-16; Isa. 1:11-17


83  Q.  What are the keys of the kingdom?

    A.  The preaching of the holy gospel
        and Christian discipline toward repentance.
        Both preaching and discipline
          open the kingdom of heaven to believers
          and close it to unbelievers.^1

    ^1  Matt. 16:19; John 20:22-23

84  Q.  How does preaching the gospel
        open and close the kingdom of heaven?

    A.  According to the command of Christ:

        The kingdom of heaven is opened
        by proclaiming and publicly declaring
          to all believers, each and every one, that,
          as often as they accept the gospel promise in true faith,
          God, because of what Christ has done,
          truly forgives all their sins.

        The kingdom of heaven is closed, however,
        by proclaiming and publicly declaring
          to unbelievers and hypocrites that,
          as long as they do not repent,
          the anger of God and eternal condemnation
          rest on them.

        God's judgment, both in this life and in the life to come,
          is based on this gospel testimony.^1

    ^1  Matt. 16:19; John 3:31-36; 20:21-23

85  Q.  How is the kingdom of heaven
        closed and opened by Christian discipline?

    A.  According to the command of Christ:

          Those who, though called Christians,
            profess unchristian teachings or live unchristian lives,
          and after repeated and loving counsel
            refuse to abandon their errors and wickedness,
          and after being reported to the church, that is, to its officers,
            fail to respond also to their admonition--
          such persons the officers exclude
              from the Christian fellowship
            by withholding the sacraments from them,
          and God himself excludes them from the kingdom of Christ.^1

          Such persons,
            when promising and demonstrating genuine reform,
          are received again
            as members of Christ
            and of his church.^2

    ^1  Matt. 18:15-20; 1 Cor. 5:3-5, 11-13; 2 Thess. 3:14-15
    ^2  Luke 15:20-24; 2 Cor. 2:6-11

Part III: Gratitude


86  Q.  We have been delivered
        from our misery
        by God's grace alone through Christ
        and not because we have earned it:
        why then must we still do good?

    A.  To be sure, Christ has redeemed us by his blood.
        But we do good because
          Christ by his Spirit is also renewing us to be like himself,
          so that in all our living
          we may show that we are thankful to God
            for all he has done for us,^1
          and so that he may be praised through us.^2

        And we do good
          so that we may be assured of our faith by its fruits,^3
          and so that by our godly living
            our neighbors may be won over to Christ.^4

    ^1  Rom. 6:13; 12:1-2; 1 Pet. 2:5-10
    ^2  Matt. 5:16; 1 Cor. 6:19-20
    ^3  Matt. 7:17-18; Gal. 5:22-24; 2 Pet. 1:10-11
    ^4  Matt. 5:14-16; Rom. 14:17-19; 1 Pet. 2:12; 3:1-2

87  Q.  Can those be saved
        who do not turn to God
        from their ungrateful
        and impenitent ways?

    A.  By no means.
        Scripture tells us that
          no unchaste person,
          no idolater, adulterer, thief,
          no covetous person,
          no drunkard, slanderer, robber,
          or the like
          is going to inherit the kingdom of God.^1

    ^1  1 Cor. 6:9-10; Gal. 5:19-21; Eph. 5:1-20; 1 John 3:14


88  Q.  What is involved
        in genuine repentance or conversion?

    A.  Two things:
          the dying-away of the old self,
          and the coming-to-life of the new.^1

    ^1  Rom. 6:1-11; 2 Cor. 5:17; Eph. 4:22-24; Col. 3:5-10

89  Q.  What is the dying-away of the old self?

    A.  It is to be genuinely sorry for sin,
        to hate it more and more,
        and to run away from it.^1

    ^1  Ps. 51:3-4, 17; Joel 2:12-13; Rom. 8:12-13; 2 Cor. 7:10

90  Q.  What is the coming-to-life of the new self?

    A.  It is wholehearted joy in God through Christ^1
        and a delight to do every kind of good
          as God wants us to.^2

    ^1  Ps. 51:8, 12; Isa.57:15; Rom. 5:1; 14:17
    ^2  Rom. 6:10-11; Gal. 2:20

91  Q.  What do we do that is good?

    A.  Only that which
          arises out of true faith,^1
          conforms to God's law,^2
          and is done for his glory;^3
        and not that which is based
          on what we think is right
          or on established human tradition.^4

    ^1  John 15:5; Heb. 11:6
    ^2  Lev. 18:4; 1 Sam. 15:22; Eph. 2:10
    ^3  1 Cor. 10:31
    ^4  Deut. 12:32; Isa. 29:13; Ezek. 20:18-19; Matt. 15:7-9


92  Q.  What does the Lord say in his law?

    A.  God spoke all these words:

            "The First Commandment"
        I am the Lord your God,
          who brought you out of Egypt,
          out of the land of slavery.
        You shall have no other gods before me.

            "The Second Commandment"
        You shall not make for yourself an idol
          in the form of anything in heaven above
          or on the earth beneath
          or in the waters below.
        You shall not bow down to them or worship them;
          for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God,
          punishing the children for the sin of the fathers
            to the third and fourth generation
            of those who hate me,
          but showing love to a thousand generations of those
            who love me and keep my commandments.

            "The Third Commandment"
        You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God,
          for the Lord will not hold anyone guiltless
          who misuses his name.

            "The Fourth Commandment"
        Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.
        Six days you shall labor and do all your work,
        but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God.
        On it you shall not do any work,
          neither you, nor your son or daughter,
          nor your manservant or maidservant,
          nor your animals,
          nor the alien within your gates.
        For in six days the Lord made
          the heavens and the earth, the sea,
          and all that is in them,
        but he rested on the seventh day.
        Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day
        and made it holy.

            "The Fifth Commandment"
        Honor your father and your mother,
          so that you may live long
          in the land the Lord your God is giving you.

            "The Sixth Commandment"
        You shall not murder.

            "The Seventh Commandment"
        You shall not commit adultery.

            "The Eighth Commandment"
        You shall not steal.

            "The Ninth Commandment"
        You shall not give false testimony
          against your neighbor.

            "The Tenth Commandment"
        You shall not covet your neighbor's house.
        You shall not covet your neighbor's wife,
          or his manservant or maidservant,
          his ox or donkey,
          or anything that belongs to your neighbor.1

    1 Ex. 20:1-17; Deut. 5:6-21

93  Q.  How are these commandments divided?

    A.  Into two tables.
        The first has four commandments,
          teaching us what our relation to God should be.
        The second has six commandments,
          teaching us what we owe our neighbor.1

    1 Matt. 22:37-39

94  Q.  What does the Lord require
        in the first commandment?

    A.  That I, not wanting to endanger my very salvation,
        avoid and shun
          all idolatry,1 magic, superstitious rites,2
          and prayer to saints or to other creatures.3

        That I sincerely acknowledge the only true God,4
          trust him alone,5
          look to him for every good thing6
            humbly7 and patiently,8
          love him,9 fear him,10 and honor him11
            with all my heart.

        In short,
          that I give up anything
          rather than go against his will in any way.12

    1 1 Cor. 6:9-10; 10:5-14; 1 John 5:21
    2 Lev. 19:31; Deut. 18:9-12
    3 Matt. 4:10; Rev. 19:10; 22:8-9
    4 John 17:3
    5 Jer. 17:5, 7
    6 Ps. 104:27-28; James 1:17
    7 1 Pet. 5:5-6
    8 Col. 1:11; Heb. 10:36
    9 Matt. 22:37 (Deut. 6:5)
    10 Prov. 9:10; 1 Pet. 1:17
    11 Matt. 4:10 (Deut. 6:13)
    12 Matt. 5:29-30; 10:37-39

95  Q.  What is idolatry?

    A.  Idolatry is
          having or inventing something in which one trusts
          in place of or alongside of the only true God,
            who has revealed himself in his Word.1

    1 1 Chron. 16:26; Gal. 4:8-9; Eph. 5:5; Phil. 3:19


96  Q.  What is God's will for us
        in the second commandment?

    A.  That we in no way make any image of God1
        nor worship him in any other way
          than he has commanded in his Word.2

    1 Deut. 4:15-19; Isa. 40:18-25; Acts 17:29; Rom. 1:22-23
    2 Lev. 10:1-7; 1 Sam. 15:22-23; John 4:23-24

97  Q.  May we then not make
        any image at all?

    A.  God can not and may not
        be visibly portrayed in any way.

        Although creatures may be portrayed,
        yet God forbids making or having such images
          if one's intention is to worship them
          or to serve God through them.1

    1 Ex. 34:13-14, 17; 2 Kings 18:4-5

98  Q.  But may not images be permitted in the churches
        as teaching aids for the unlearned?

    A.  No, we shouldn't try to be wiser than God.
        He wants his people instructed
          by the living preaching of his Word--1
          not by idols that cannot even talk.2

    1 Rom. 10:14-15, 17; 2 Tim. 3:16-17; 2 Pet. 1:19
    2 Jer. 10:8; Hab. 2:18-20


99  Q.  What is God's will for us
        in the third commandment?

    A.  That we neither blaspheme nor misuse the name of God
          by cursing,^1 perjury,^2 or unnecessary oaths,^3
        nor share in such horrible sins
          by being silent bystanders.^4

        In a word, it requires
          that we use the holy name of God
            only with reverence and awe,^5
          so that we may properly
            confess him,^6
            pray to him,^7
            and praise him in everything we do and say.^8

    ^1  Lev. 24:10-17
    ^2  Lev. 19:12
    ^3  Matt. 5:37; James 5:12
    ^4  Lev. 5:1; Prov. 29:24
    ^5  Ps. 99:1-5; Jer. 4:2
    ^6  Matt. 10:32-33; Rom. 10:9-10
    ^7  Ps. 50:14-15; 1 Tim. 2:8
    ^8  Col. 3:17

100 Q.  Is blasphemy of God's name by swearing and cursing
        really such serious sin
        that God is angry also with those
        who do not do all they can
        to help prevent it and forbid it?

    A.  Yes, indeed.1
          No sin is greater,
          no sin makes God more angry
          than blaspheming his name.
        That is why he commanded the death penalty for it.2

    1 Lev. 5:1
    2 Lev. 24:10-17


101 Q.  But may we swear an oath in God's name
        if we do it reverently?

    A.  Yes, when the government demands it,
        or when necessity requires it,
          in order to maintain and promote truth and trustworthiness
          for God's glory and our neighbor's good.

        Such oaths are approved in God's Word1
        and were rightly used by Old and New Testament believers.2

    1 Deut. 6:13; 10:20; Jer. 4:1-2; Heb. 6:16
    2 Gen. 21:24; Josh. 9:15; 1 Kings 1:29-30; Rom. 1:9; 2 Cor. 1:23

102 Q.  May we swear by saints or other creatures?

    A.  No.
        A legitimate oath means calling upon God
        as the one who knows my heart
          to witness to my truthfulness
          and to punish me if I swear falsely.1
        No creature is worthy of such honor.2

    1 Rom. 9:1; 2 Cor. 1:23
    2 Matt. 5:34-37; 23:16-22; James 5:12


103 Q.  What is God's will for you
        in the fourth commandment?

    A.  First,
          that the gospel ministry and education for it be maintained,1
          and that, especially on the festive day of rest,
          I regularly attend the assembly of God's people2
            to learn what God's Word teaches,3
            to participate in the sacraments,4
            to pray to God publicly,5
            and to bring Christian offerings for the poor.6

          that every day of my life
            I rest from my evil ways,
            let the Lord work in me through his Spirit,
            and so begin already in this life
          the eternal Sabbath.7

    1 Deut. 6:4-9, 20-25; 1 Cor. 9:13-14; 2 Tim. 2:2; 3:13-17; Tit. 1:5
    2 Deut. 12:5-12; Ps. 40:9-10; 68:26; Acts 2:42-47; Heb. 10:23-25
    3 Rom. 10:14-17; 1 Cor. 14:31-32; 1 Tim. 4:13
    4 1 Cor. 11:23-25
    5 Col. 3:16; 1 Tim. 2:1
    6 Ps. 50:14; 1 Cor. 16:2; 2 Cor. 8 & 9
    7 Isa. 66:23; Heb. 4:9-11


104 Q.  What is God's will for you
        in the fifth commandment?

    A.  That I honor, love, and be loyal to
          my father and mother
          and all those in authority over me;
        that I obey and submit to them, as is proper,
          when they correct and punish me;^1
        and also that I be patient with their failings--^2
        for through them God chooses to rule us.^3

    ^1  Ex. 21:17; Prov. 1:8; 4:1; Rom. 13:1-2; Eph. 5:21-22; 6:1-9; Col. 3:18-
    ^2  Prov. 20:20; 23:22; 1 Pet. 2:18
    ^3  Matt. 22:21; Rom. 13:1-8; Eph. 6:1-9; Col. 3:18-21


105 Q.  What is God's will for you
        in the sixth commandment?

    A.  I am not to belittle, insult, hate, or kill my neighbor--
          not by my thoughts, my words, my look or gesture,
          and certainly not by actual deeds--
        and I am not to be party to this in others;^1
        rather, I am to put away all desire for revenge.^2

        I am not to harm or recklessly endanger myself either.^3

        Prevention of murder is also why
          government is armed with the sword.^4

    ^1  Gen. 9:6; Lev. 19:17-18; Matt. 5:21-22; 26:52
    ^2  Prov. 25:21-22; Matt. 18:35; Rom. 12:19; Eph. 4:26
    ^3  Matt. 4:7; 26:52; Rom. 13:11-14
    ^4  Gen. 9:6; Ex. 21:14; Rom. 13:4

106 Q.  Does this commandment refer only to killing?

    A.  By forbidding murder God teaches us
          that he hates the root of murder:
          envy, hatred, anger, vindictiveness.^1

        In God's sight all such are murder.^2

    ^1  Prov. 14:30; Rom. 1:29; 12:19; Gal. 5:19-21; 1 John 2:9-11
    ^2  1 John 3:15

107 Q.  Is it enough then
        that we do not kill our neighbor
        in any such way?

    A.  No.
        By condemning envy, hatred, and anger
        God tells us
          to love our neighbors as ourselves,^1
          to be patient, peace-loving, gentle,
            merciful, and friendly to them,^2
        to protect them from harm as much as we can,
        and to do good even to our enemies.^3

    ^1  Matt. 7:12; 22:39; Rom. 12:10
    ^2  Matt. 5:3-12; Luke 6:36; Rom. 12:10, 18; Gal. 6:1-2; Eph. 4:2; Col. 3:12;
1 Pet. 3:8
    ^3  Ex. 23:4-5; Matt. 5:44-45; Rom. 12:20-21 (Prov. 25:21-22)


108 Q.  What is God's will for us
        in the seventh commandment?

    A.  God condemns all unchastity.^1
          We should therefore thoroughly detest it^2
          and, married or single,
          live decent and chaste lives.^3

    ^1  Lev. 18:30; Eph. 5:3-5
    ^2  Jude 22-23
    ^3  1 Cor. 7:1-9; 1 Thess. 4:3-8; Heb. 13:4

109 Q.  Does God, in this commandment,
        forbid only such scandalous sins as adultery?

    A.  We are temples of the Holy Spirit, body and soul,
        and God wants both to be kept clean and holy.
        That is why he forbids
          everything which incites unchastity,^1
          whether it be actions, looks, talk, thoughts, or desires.^2

    ^1  1 Cor. 15:33; Eph. 5:18
    ^2  Matt. 5:27-29; 1 Cor. 6:18-20; Eph. 5:3-4


110 Q.  What does God forbid
        in the eighth commandment?

    A.  He forbids not only outright theft and robbery,
          punishable by law.^1

        But in God's sight theft also includes
          cheating and swindling our neighbor
          by schemes made to appear legitimate,^2
          such as:
            inaccurate measurements of weight, size, or volume;
            fraudulent merchandising;
            counterfeit money;
            excessive interest;
            or any other means forbidden by God.^3

        In addition he forbids all greed^4
        and pointless squandering of his gifts.^5

    ^1  Ex. 22:1; 1 Cor. 5:9-10; 6:9-10
    ^2  Mic. 6:9-11; Luke 3:14; James 5:1-6
    ^3  Deut. 25:13-16; Ps. 15:5; Prov. 11:1; 12:22; Ezek. 45:9-12; Luke 6:35
    ^4  Luke 12:15; Eph. 5:5
    ^5  Prov. 21:20; 23:20-21; Luke 16:10-13

111 Q.  What does God require of you
        in this commandment?

    A.  That I do whatever I can
          for my neighbor's good,
        that I treat others
          as I would like them to treat me,
        and that I work faithfully
          so that I may share with those in need.^1

    ^1  Isa. 58:5-10; Matt. 7:12; Gal. 6:9-10; Eph. 4:28


112 Q.  What is God's will for you
        in the ninth commandment?

    A.  God's will is that I
          never give false testimony against anyone,
          twist no one's words,
          not gossip or slander,
          nor join in condemning anyone
            without a hearing or without a just cause.^1

        Rather, in court and everywhere else,
        I should avoid lying and deceit of every kind;
          these are devices the devil himself uses,
          and they would call down on me God's intense anger.^2
        I should love the truth,
          speak it candidly,
          and openly acknowledge it.^3
        And I should do what I can
          to guard and advance my neighbor's good name.^4

    ^1  Ps. 15; Prov. 19:5; Matt. 7:1; Luke 6:37; Rom. 1:28-32
    ^2  Lev. 19:11-12; Prov. 12:22; 13:5; John 8:44; Rev. 21:8
    ^3  1 Cor. 13:6; Eph. 4:25
    ^4  1 Pet. 3:8-9; 4:8


113 Q.  What is God's will for you
        in the tenth commandment?

    A.  That not even the slightest thought or desire
          contrary to any one of God's commandments
          should ever arise in my heart.

        Rather, with all my heart
          I should always hate sin
          and take pleasure in whatever is right.^1

    ^1  Ps. 19:7-14; 139:23-24; Rom. 7:7-8

114 Q.  But can those converted to God
        obey these commandments perfectly?

    A.  No.
        In this life even the holiest
        have only a small beginning of this obedience.^1

        Nevertheless, with all seriousness of purpose,
        they do begin to live
        according to all, not only some,
        of God's commandments.^2

    ^1  Eccles. 7:20; Rom. 7:14-15; 1 Cor. 13:9; 1 John 1:8-10
    ^2  Ps. 1:1-2; Rom. 7:22-25; Phil. 3:12-16

115 Q.  No one in this life
        can obey the Ten Commandments perfectly:
        why then does God want them
        preached so pointedly?

    A.  First, so that the longer we live
          the more we may come to know our sinfulness
          and the more eagerly look to Christ
            for forgiveness of sins and righteousness.^1

        Second, so that,
          while praying to God for the grace of the Holy Spirit,
        we may never stop striving
          to be renewed more and more after God's image,
        until after this life we reach our goal:

    ^1  Ps. 32:5; Rom. 3:19-26; 7:7, 24-25; 1 John 1:9
    ^2  1 Cor. 9:24; Phil. 3:12-14; 1 John 3:1-3



116 Q.  Why do Christians need to pray?

    A.  Because prayer is the most important part
          of the thankfulness God requires of us.1
        And also because God gives his grace and Holy Spirit
        only to those who pray continually and groan inwardly,
          asking God for these gifts
          and thanking him for them.2

    1 Ps. 50:14-15; 116:12-19; 1 Thess. 5:16-18
    2 Matt. 7:7-8; Luke 11:9-13

117 Q.  How does God want us to pray
        so that he will listen to us?

    A.  First, we must pray from the heart
          to no other than the one true God,
            who has revealed himself in his Word,
          asking for everything he has commanded us to ask for.1

        Second, we must acknowledge our need and misery,
          hiding nothing,
          and humble ourselves in his majestic presence.2

        Third, we must rest on this unshakable foundation:
          even though we do not deserve it,
          God will surely listen to our prayer
            because of Christ our Lord.
          That is what he promised us in his Word.3

    1 Ps. 145:18-20; John 4:22-24; Rom. 8:26-27; James 1:5; 1 John 5:14-15
    2 2 Chron. 7:14; Ps. 2:11; 34:18; 62:8; Isa. 66:2; Rev. 4
    3 Dan. 9:17-19; Matt. 7:8; John 14:13-14; 16:23; Rom. 10:13; James 1:6

118 Q.  What did God command us to pray for?

    A.  Everything we need, spiritually and physically,1
        as embraced in the prayer
        Christ our Lord himself taught us.

    1 James 1:17; Matt. 6:33

119 Q.  What is this prayer?

    A.  Our Father in heaven,
        hallowed be your name,
        your kingdom come,
        your will be done
          on earth as it is in heaven.
        Give us today our daily bread.
        Forgive us our debts,
          as we also have forgiven our debtors.
        And lead us not into temptation,
          but deliver us from the evil one.
        For yours is the kingdom
          and the power
          and the glory forever.

    1 Matt. 6:9-13; Luke 11:2-4
    *Earlier and better manuscripts of Matthew 6 omit the words "For yours is
. . . Amen."


120 Q.  Why did Christ command us
        to call God "our Father"?

    A.  At the very beginning of our prayer
        Christ wants to kindle in us
        what is basic to our prayer--
          the childlike awe and trust
          that God through Christ has become
        our Father.

        Our fathers do not refuse us
          the things of this life;
        God our Father will even less refuse to give us
          what we ask in faith.1

    1 Matt. 7:9-11; Luke 11:11-13

121 Q.  Why the words
        "in heaven"?

    A.  These words teach us
          not to think of God's heavenly majesty
            as something earthly,1
          and to expect everything
            for body and soul
            from his almighty power.2

    1 Jer. 23:23-24; Acts 17:24-25
    2 Matt. 6:25-34; Rom. 8:31-32


122 Q.  What does the first request mean?

    A.  "Hallowed be your name" means,

        Help us to really know you,1
        to bless, worship, and praise you
          for all your works
          and for all that shines forth from them:
            your almighty power, wisdom, kindness,
            justice, mercy, and truth.2

        And it means,

        Help us to direct all our living--
          what we think, say, and do--
        so that your name will never be blasphemed because of us
        but always honored and praised.3

    1 Jer. 9:23-24; 31:33-34; Matt. 16:17; John 17:3
    2 Ex. 34:5-8; Ps. 145; Jer. 32:16-20; Luke 1:46-55, 68-75; Rom. 11:33-36
    3 Ps. 115:1; Matt. 5:16


123 Q.  What does the second request mean?

    A.  "Your kingdom come" means,
        Rule us by your Word and Spirit in such a way
          that more and more we submit to you.1

        Keep your church strong, and add to it.2

        Destroy the devil's work;
        destroy every force which revolts against you
        and every conspiracy against your Word.3

        Do this until your kingdom is so complete and perfect
          that in it you are
            all in all.4

    1 Ps. 119:5, 105; 143:10; Matt. 6:33
    2 Ps. 122:6-9; Matt. 16:18; Acts 2:42-47
    3 Rom. 16:20; 1 John 3:8
    4 Rom. 8:22-23; 1 Cor. 15:28; Rev. 22:17, 20


124 Q.  What does the third request mean?

    A.  "Your will be done on earth as it is in heaven" means,

        Help us and all people
          to reject our own wills
          and to obey your will without any back talk.
          Your will alone is good.1

        Help us one and all to carry out the work we are called to,2
          as willingly and faithfully as the angels in heaven.3

    1 Matt. 7:21; 16:24-26; Luke 22:42; Rom. 12:1-2; Tit. 2:11-12
    2 1 Cor. 7:17-24; Eph. 6:5-9
    3 Ps. 103:20-21


125 Q.  What does the fourth request mean?

    A.  "Give us today our daily bread" means,

        Do take care of all our physical needs1
        so that we come to know
          that you are the only source of everything good,2
          and that neither our work and worry
          nor your gifts
          can do us any good without your blessing.3

        And so help us to give up our trust in creatures
        and to put trust in you alone.4

   1 Ps. 104:27-30; 145:15-16; Matt. 6:25-34
   2 Acts 14:17; 17:25; James 1:17
   3 Deut. 8:3; Ps. 37:16; 127:1-2; 1 Cor. 15:58
   4 Ps. 55:22; 62; 146; Jer. 17:5-8; Heb. 13:5-6


126 Q.  What does the fifth request mean?

    A.  "Forgive us our debts,
        as we also have forgiven our debtors" means,

        Because of Christ's blood,
        do not hold against us, poor sinners that we are,
          any of the sins we do
          or the evil that constantly clings to us.1

        Forgive us just as we are fully determined,
          as evidence of your grace in us,
        to forgive our neighbors.2

    1 Ps. 51:1-7; 143:2; Rom. 8:1; 1 John 2:1-2
    2 Matt. 6:14-15; 18:21-35


127 Q.  What does the sixth request mean?

    A.  "And lead us not into temptation,
        but deliver us from the evil one" means,

        By ourselves we are too weak
        to hold our own even for a moment.1

        And our sworn enemies--
          the devil,2 the world,3 and our own flesh--4
        never stop attacking us.

        And so, Lord,
        uphold us and make us strong
          with the strength of your Holy Spirit,
        so that we may not go down to defeat
          in this spiritual struggle,5
        but may firmly resist our enemies
          until we finally win the complete victory.6

    1 Ps. 103:14-16; John 15:1-5
    2 2 Cor. 11:14; Eph. 6:10-13; 1 Pet. 5:8
    3 John 15:18-21
    4 Rom. 7:23; Gal. 5:17
    5 Matt. 10:19-20; 26:41; Mark 13:33; Rom. 5:3-5
    6 1 Cor. 10:13; 1 Thes. 3:13; 5:23

128 Q.  What does your conclusion to this prayer mean?

    A.  "For yours is the kingdom
        and the power
        and the glory forever" means,

        We have made all these requests of you
        because, as our all-powerful king,
          you not only want to,
          but are able to give us all that is good;1
        and because your holy name,
          and not we ourselves,
        should receive all the praise, forever.2

    1 Rom. 10:11-13; 2 Pet. 2:9
    2 Ps. 115:1; John 14:13

129 Q.  What does that little word "Amen" express?

    A.  "Amen" means,

        This is sure to be!

        It is even more sure
          that God listens to my prayer,
        than that I really desire
          what I pray for.1

    1 Isa. 65:24; 2 Cor. 1:20; 2 Tim. 2:13